Selected References


Here are all the papers referenced in the MCA Web plus some others that I found of sufficient interest to include. Since all the citations are hyper-linked to the entries in this page, the references here are not in alphabetical order, but rather in an arbitrary order. This is not a complete list of MCA references, for more complete lists please read the reviews cited below or do a bibliographic search.

Fundamental Papers

Kacser, H. & Burns, J.A. (1973) The control of flux. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 27, 65-104.

Burns, J.A. (1971) Studies on complex enzyme systems. PhD thesis, Univ of Edinburgh, now on the Web.

Heinrich, R. & Rapoport, T.A. (1974) A linear steady-state treatment of enzymatic chains. General properties, control and effector strength., Eur. J. Biochem. 42, 89-95.

Burns, J.A., Cornish-Bowden, A., Groen, A.K., Heinrich, R., Kacser, H., Porteous, J.W., Rapoport, S.M., Rapoport T.A., Stucki, J.W., Tager, J.M., Wanders, R.J.A. & Westerhoff, H.V. (1985), Control of metabolic systems. Trends Biochem. Sci. 10, 16.

Theoretical Advances

Heinrich, R. & Rapoport, T.A. (1975) Mathematical analysis of multienzyme systems. II. Steady-state and transient control. BioSystems 7, 130-136.

Kacser, H. (1983) The control of enzyme systems in vivo: elasticity analysis of the steady state. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 11, 35-40.

Reder, C. (1988) Metabolic control theory: a structural approach. J. Theoret. Biol. 135, 175-201.

Westerhoff, H.V. & Chen, Y.-D. (1984) How do enzyme activities control metabolite concentrations? An additional theorem in the theory of metabolic control. Eur. J. Biochem. 142, 425-430

Westerhoff, H.V. & Kell, D.B. (1987) Matrix method for determining the steps most rate-limiting to metabolic fluxes in biotechnological processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 30, 101-107.

Fell, D.A. & Sauro, H.M. (1985) Metabolic control and its analysis. Additional relationships between elasticities and control coefficients. Eur. J. Biochem. 148, 555-561.

Sauro, H.M., Small, J.R. & Fell, D.A. (1987) Metabolic control and its analysis. Extensions to the theory and matrix method. Eur. J. Biochem. 165, 215-221.

Small, J.R. & Fell, D.A. (1989) The matrix method of metabolic control analysis: its validity for complex pathway structures. J. Theoret. Biol. 136, 181-197.

Hofmeyr, J.-H.S., Kacser, H. & van der Merwe, K.J. (1986) Metabolic control analysis of moiety-conserved cycles. Eur. J. Biochem. 155, 631-641.

Small, J.R. & Fell, D.A. (1989) The matrix method of metabolic control analysis: its validity for complex pathway structures. J. Theoret. Biol. 136, 181-197.

Cascante, M., Franco, R. & Canela, E.I. (1989a) Use of implicit methods from general sensitivity theory to develop a systematic approach to metabolic control. 1. Unbranched pathways. Math. Biosci. 94, 271-288.

Cascante, M., Franco, R., and Canela, E.I. (1989b), Use of implicit methods from general sensitivity theory to develop a systematic approach to metabolic control. 2. Complex systems. Math. Biosci. 94, 289-309 .

Giersch, C. (1988) Control analysis of metabolic networks. 1. Homogeneous functions and the summation theorems for control coefficients. Eur. J. Biochem. 174, 509-513.

Acerenza, L., Sauro, H.M. & Kacser, H. (1989) Control analysis of time-dependent metabolic systems. J. Theoret. Biol. 137, 423-444.

Kohn, M.C. & Chiang, E. (1982) Metabolic network sensitivity analysis. J. Theoret. Biol. 98, 109-126.

Markus, M. & Hess, B. (1990) Control of metabolic oscillations: unpredictability, critical slowing down, optimal stability and hysteresis. In Control of Metabolic Processes. (Cornish-Bowden, A. & Cárdenas, M. eds), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 303-313.

Westerhoff, H.V. & Kell, D.B. (1988) A control theoretic analysis of inhibitor titration assays of metabolic channeling. Comments Mol. Cell. Biophys. 5, 57-107.

Kell, D.B. & Westerhoff, H.V. (1990) Control analysis of organised multienzyme systems. In: Structural and organizational aspects of metabolic regulation, UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology, New Series, Vol 134 (P. Srere, M.E. Jones and C. Mathews, eds), pp. 273-289. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Kacser, H., Sauro, H.M. & Acerenza, L. (1990) Enzyme-enzyme interactions and control analysis. 1. The case of nonadditivity: monomer-oligomer associations. Eur. J. Biochem. 187, 481-491.

Sauro, H.M. & Kacser, H. (1990) Enzyme-enzyme interactions and control analysis. 2. The case of nonindependence: heterologous associations. Eur. J. Biochem. 187, 493-500.

Kholodenko, B.N. & Westerhoff, H.V. (1993) Metabolic channelling and control of the flux. FEBS Lett. 320, 71-74.

van Dam, K., van der Vlag, J., Kholodenko, B.N. & Westerhoff, H.V. (1993) The sum of the flux control coefficients of all enzymes on the flux through a group-transfer pathway can be as high as two. Eur. J. Biochem. 212, 791-799.

Cárdenas, M.L. & Cornish-Bowden, A. (1989) Characteristics necessary for an interconvertible enzyme cascade to generate a highly sensitive response to an effector. Biochem. J. 257, 339-345.

Small, J.R. & Fell, D.A. (1990) Covalent modification and metabolic control analysis. Modification to the theorems and their application to metabolic systems containing covalently modifiable enzymes. Eur. J. Biochem. 191, 405-411.

Schuster, S., Kahn, D. & Westerhoff, H.V. (1993) Modular analysis of the control of complex metabolic pathways. Biophys. Chem. 48, 1-17.

Westerhoff, H.V., Hofmeyr, J.-H.S. & Kholodenko, B.N. (1994) Getting to the inside of cells using metabolic control analysis. Biophys. Chem. 50, 273-283.

Meléndez Hevia, E., Torres, N.V., Sicilia, J. & Kacser, H. (1990) Control analysis of transition times in metabolic systems. Biochem. J. 265, 195-202.


Cornish-Bowden, A. (1995) Metabolic control analysis in theory and practice. Adv. Mol. Cell Biol. 11, 21-64.

Fell, D.A. (1992) Metabolic control analysis – a survey of its theoretical and experimental development. Biochem. J. 286, 313-330.

Schuster, S. & Heinrich, R. (1992) The definitions of metabolic control analysis revisited. BioSystems 27, 1-15.

Kell, D.B., van Dam, K. & Westerhoff, H.V. (1989) Control analysis of microbial growth and productivity. Symp. Soc. Gen. Microbiol. 44, 61-93.


Westerhoff, H.V. & van Dam, K. (1987) Thermodynamics and Control of Biological Free-energy Transduction. Amsterdam, Elsevier.

Cornish-Bowden, A. & Cárdenas, M.L. (eds.) (1990) Control of metabolic processes., New York, Plenum Press.

Fell, D. A. (1996) Understanding the Control of Metabolism.. London, Portland Press.

Heinrich, R. & Schuster, S. (1996) The regulation of cellular systems.. New York, Chapman & Hall.


Groen, A.K., Wanders, R.J.A., Westerhoff, H.V., van der Meer, R. and Tager, J.M. (1982) Quantification of the contribution of various steps to the control of mitochondrial respiration. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 2754-2757.

Niederberger, P., Prasad, R., Miozzari, G. & Kacser, H. (1982) A strategy for increasing an in vivo flux by genetic manipulations. The tryptophan system of yeast. Biochem. J. 287, 473-479.

Flint, H.J., Tateson, R.W., Barthelmess, I.B., Porteous, D.J., Donachie, W.D. and Kacser, H. (1981) Control of the flux in the arginine pathway of Neurospora crassa. Modulations of enzyme activity and concentration. Biochem. J 200, 231-246.

Torres, N.V., Mateo, F., Meléndez-Hevia, E. & Kacser, H. (1986) Kinetics of metabolic pathways. A system in vitro to study the control of flux. Biochem. J. 234, 169-174.

Small, J.R. (1993) Flux control coefficients determined by inhibitor titration: the design and analysis of experiments to minimize errors Biochem. J. 296, 423-433.

Brown, G.C., Hafner, R.P. & Brand, M.D. (1990) A 'top-down' approach to the determination of control coefficients in metabolic control theory. Eur. J. Biochem. 188, 321-325.

Delgado, J. & Liao, J.C. (1992), Determination of flux control coefficients from transient metabolite concentrations Biochem. J. 282, 919-927.

Delgado, J., and Liao, J.C. (1992), Metabolic control analysis using transient metabolite concentrations. Determination of metabolite concentration control coefficients. Biochem. J. 285, 965-972.

Groen, A.K., van Roermund, C.W.T., Vervoorn, R. & Tager, J.M. (1986), Control of gluconeogenesis in rat liver cells. Flux control coefficients of the enzymes in the gluconeogenic pathway in the absence and presence of glucagon. Biochem. J. 237, 379-389.


Mendes, P. (1993) GEPASI: a software package for modelling the dynamics, steady states and control of biochemical and other systems. Comput. Appl. Biosci. 9, 563-571.

Letellier, T., Reder, C. & Mazat, J. P. (1991) CONTROL – software for the analysis of control of metabolic networks. Comput. Applic. Biosci. 7, 383-390.

Thomas, S. & Fell, D.A. (1993) A computer program for the algebraic determination of control coefficients in metabolic control analysis. Biochem. J. 292, 351-360.

Sauro, H. M. (1993) SCAMP: a general-purpose simulator and metabolic control analysis program. Comput. Appl. Biosci. 9, 441-450.

Sauro, H.M. & Fell, D.A. (1991) SCAMP: A metabolic simulator and control analysis program. Math. Comput. Modelling 15, 15-28.

Cornish-Bowden, A. & Hofmeyr, J.-H.S. (1991), MetaModel: a program for modelling and control analysis of metabolic pathways on the IBM PC and compatibles. Comput. Applic. Biosci. 7, 89-93.

Ehlde, M. & Zacchi, G. (1995). MIST: a user-friendly metabolic simulator. Comput. Appl. Biosci. 11, 201-207.

Related Topics

Reich, J.G. & Sel'kov, E.E. (1981) Energy metabolism of the cell. A theoretical treatise. Academic Press, London.

Keleti, T. (1986) Basic enzyme kinetics., Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Cornish-Bowden, A. (1995) Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. (2nd edition) Portland Press, London

Srere, P.A. (1987) Complexes of sequential metabolic enzymes. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 56, 21-56.

Ovádi, J. (1991) Physiological significance of metabolic channelling. J. Theoret. Biol. 152, 1-22.

Mendes, P., Kell, D.B. & Welch, G.R. (1995) Metabolic channeling in organized enzyme systems: experiments and models. Adv. Mol. Cell Biol. 11, 1-19.

Stucki, J.W. (1978). Stability analysis of biochemical systems. A practical guide. Progr. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 33, 99-187.

Chock, P.B. & Stadtman, E.R. (1980) Covalently interconvertible enzyme cascade systems. Methods Enzymol. 64, 297-325.